Conflict can take a toll in our professional and personal lives. Time, money and lives are lost when conflicts are not effectively managed. Frequently, the only two options we see for handling conflict are to respond in a combative manner (fight) or totally avoid the conflict (flight/freeze/submit). Sadly, both of these strategies often do more to escalate conflict than to extinguish it. And, the opportunity to turn a conflict into a positive learning experience is lost.
Almost every conflict can produce a positive benefit. However, in order to reap the benefit we typically have to navigate through some muddy waters and hold a difficult discussion. The more you know about addressing conflict the more adept you will be when it’s time to engage in these difficult dialogues.
Before holding a difficult discussion you should consider the following:
* Are you willing to risk damaging or losing the relationship?
* Are you going to ask the person on the other side to change? If you are you may want to think twice. Its difficult to change when we are highly motivated. Its almost impossible to change when the impetus for change is coming from an external force.
* What is the best location for holding the discussion? (Help establish a positive tone by meeting in a comfortable, neutral location.)
* What political forces are sustaining the conflict? Who needs to be involved in the discussion and the implementation of possible resolutions?
* What are the possible consequences of admitting a mistake, losing emotional control, or exposing a personal vulnerability?
* What level of confidentiality is reasonable to expect?
* Are any topics or solutions off limits?
* How can the dispute be framed as a mutual problem?
Once you are ready for the difficult discussion, make sure that your attitude reflects the fact that discord is simply a natural by-product of close human connection and almost always presents an opportunity to learn what needs to be fixed. Additionally, you will want to consider the following concepts and strategies:
o Discuss the duration of the “session” and other guidelines before beginning. Avoid guidelines framed in the negative (“no name calling”), instead stay positive (“a commitment to show each other respect”).
o The following set of questions can be used to guide an effective discussion under stress:
* Where are we now?
* Where do we need to be?
* How will we get there?
* What do each of us need to do?
* How can I help you?
o Be prepared for confrontation. Expect some level of venting and strong emotion. If you are prepared you will be able to keep your cool and model the attitudes and behaviors you want from others. Uncontrolled emotions can harm your image, no matter how much you are provoked.
o Listen and get the whole story. Active listening takes practice and an open, unbiased, and uncluttered mind. The active listener is actively engaged in the communication process and pays strict attention to all speakers, asking appropriate, open-ended questions (how, what, when, where, who?) to probe for underlying interests and clarifying questions to verify understanding. The active listening skills of empathizing, paraphrasing, reframing, summarizing and picking-up on non-verbal clues are worth cultivating.
o Focus on solving problems, not placing blame. Fault-finding is looking backward, resolution requires moving forward.
o Objectively evaluate if the conflict is structural – arising from policies and procedures – or interpersonal.
o Be willing to apologize for your errors and the stress the situation has caused the others involved.
o Your tone of voice and body language must be in agreement with your words. Others will believe your voice and other non-verbal messages as opposed to your words if there is inconsistency between them.
o Don’t expect to find a flawless solution. A solution that can be revisited and readjusted may be a great first step.
o If you are stuck, suggest each participant write down their perspectives of the dispute and some recommended remedies. Then read each other’s writings.
o If a discussion escalates so that people are no longer listening to each other, call a time-out.
o If stories are inconsistent or the conflict’s cause is undeterminable, at the appropriate time, suggest wiping the slate clean, putting the incident in the past, and starting anew.
o Seek commonalities, such as a shared experience (feeling dismissed) or a personality trait (independence) which may be fueling the fire.
o Plan some kind of formal or informal follow-up to avoid a recurrence of the conflict.
o Shake hands and sign off on a written version of the agreed-upon solution.
Without reinforcement the stress of conflict can easily lead you back to old patterns. Practicing these techniques can strengthen your commitment to bring conflicts safely into the open.